This README file describes briefly the main directories of the Ada contrib.

The software compiles with Ada 2012 (Gnat GPL 2017) for Linux 64 bits.

Some programs depend on PCRE (Perl Compatible Regular Expressions) and work with version 7.8 or above (8.35 is OK), or PCRE2, version 10.00 or above (10.22 is OK), and require the corresponding PCRE developpement package.

Some programs depend on libssl for EVP digest.

The asciidoc suite is used for the generation of the documentation.

The graphical library is based on X11 and needs:

  • the X11 development package,

  • the XPM development package,

  • the font packages 75dpi and 100dpi and the corresponding transcoded (from ISO 10646-1) versions.

Finally, a C libray needs the lib gdbm developpement package.

Some C includes and libraries are installed in /usr/local. The first time, you may need to install them as root then change their owner. You may also need to add /usr/local/lib in /etc/ (and do a ldconfig).
Some programs require the stack size to be larger than the default maximum. Use for example ulimit -s 1048576 to allow a larger stack.

Programs are rated from 1 (simple) to 3 (very complex), on subjective criteria.

1. Gnatmake (optional)

The script ada/gnatmake can be set in the PATH (you can copy it or make a link from $HOME/bin/gnatmake to it).

Similarly, the commands ada and gnatlink can be in the path and be this same gnatmake script (you can copy it or make links from $HOME/bin/ada and $HOME/bin/gnatlink to it).

The automatic generation by make (see next section) doesn’t use them but this script and commands can be useful for manual compilation.

2. Makefiles project (MANDATORY)

This project gathers several generic definitions for C and Ada generation. Several examples of usage can be found in the source directories.

2.1. Summary

The main features are:

  • automatic list of units

  • prerequisits

  • conditionnal preprocessing

  • optimization

  • static executables

  • documentation generation

2.2. PCRE flavour

Depending of the use of PCRE or PCRE2, the template has to be adapted by defining the variable PCRE to either PCRE1 or PCRE2.

2.3. Relocation of the Makefiles directory

If the Makefiles installation directory is not $(HOME)/Makefiles, then the new location can be set in the environment variable MAKFILES_DIR. Otherwise:

  • the definition of TEMPLATES in has to be adapted,

  • all makefiles must have their first include directive of adapted with the new location.

2.4. Relocation of C or Repository

If the c or the repository directory is not in $(HOME)/ada, then the template of Makefiles must be adapted with the new path.

2.5. Recursive make

The content of the makefile for applying make to subdirectories is:

SUBDIRS := c reposit usr
include $(if $(MAKFILES_DIR), $(MAKFILES_DIR), $(HOME)/Makefiles)/

Other directives can be added if something has also to be compiled in the current directory.

3. C directory (MANDATORY)

Four libraries are generated here:

C utilities (cutil)

This lib gathers several low level utility libraries:

  • timeval, used by other C libraries, for struct timeval operations,

  • socket, interfaced by the Ada Socket package, interfaces socket calls (tcp, udp, ipm, message on tcp, afinet or afux),

  • sys_calls, interfaced by the Ada Sys_Calls and some other Ada packages, for several calls to the operating system,

  • wait_evt, interfaced by the Ada Even_Mng package, waits (with "select") on several fds, catches signals…

X11 management (xmng)

This lib encapsulates all the needed calls to X11, interfaced by the Ada X_Mng package.

Ndbm (cnbdbm)

This lib interfaces with ndbm C library. The corresponding Ada Ndbm package is not used at present (except in test).

Posix to PCRE (posic2pcre)

Own binding of PCRE to POSIX API, with extension, interfaced by the Ada Regular_Expressions package.

4. Reposit directory

There are many utility packages here. Some of them are interdependant, the main dependency trees are:

  • Graphic (X11) function: X_MngCon_IoAfpx and Curve

  • Communication, Timers: Socket, Timers and Event_MngTcp_UtilAutobus (and Channels)

See reposit/REPOSIT_LIST.html for the list of packages and how to use them.

5. Usr directories

Each directory under usr hosts a standalone project, except misc (miscellaneous small programs), tests (test programs of repository packages) and tasks (simple task examples).

They all depend on C and Reposit and are independant one from the others (except pipefifosdictio).

The more usefull are udp_spy and alook (in directory misc), xml_checker (in directory xml) agite, als, asubst, lsadeps and mcd.

The games are g (in directory misc), battleship, lem, mmind, nimmari and sokoban.

Here is the full list and description, rated from 1 (simple) to 3 (very complex) on subjective criteria:

Account (3)

Based on Afpx, this tool handles the management of bank accounts, with cheque, credit card (defered) and transfer operations.

Agite (3)

GUI for Git on Afpx, directory oriented. Implements all basic actions with GIT.

Als (2)

Lists, more or less the "ls" way, files and directories. Allow selection by date, type, regexp. Allows merging of all outputs and sorting.

Approx (3)

Using Afpx and Curve, the program computes and displays the polynomial approximation of a set of points in the plan.

Astub (3)

Ada2012 stubber (makes compilable empty body from spec).

Asubst (3)

Substitutes in files by new strings the strings that match a regexp.

Battleship (2)

Battleship game for two players through the network (with Autobus).

Chess (3)

With Con_Io and Tcp_Util, allows two players to play chess on one or two displays. Checks movement validity (already tricky) but does not play against human (too tricky).

C_Magic (1)

Small program that computes magic squares (numbers from to 1 in a square, with same sum on all rows, cols and diags). Consumes a lot of CPU despite many optims :-)

Code (1)

Simple programs that codes (encrypts) and decodes a text. The crypting algo are old and not secure.

Dictio (3)

Distributed data dictionary that allows storing data, distributing this data base on all the machines. Ensures correct insertion of new machines and periodic consistency checks. Recovery of data loss may be optimized (presently it resends all).

Enigma (2)

Encodes/decodes text like the german enigma machines did in ww2.

Fifos (2)

Use dictio to make distributed point to point connections (logical adress, automatic connection and re-connection). Deprecated, use Autobus instead.

Fl (1)

Simple computation of fligh log (adding hours and minutes).

Great_Circle (1)

Computation of heading and distance between two points on earth (GPS).

Heart (3)

Dta base of heart rate measures, displayed with Afpx.

Hungar (2)

Euristic search (hungarian method) of best affection (e.g. of people to jobs). Tough algo.

Lem (2)

Game: land the LEM on the moon.

Logrotator (1)

Splits stdin into several files according to a given time period and possibly to a maximum size for the files.

Lsadeps (3)

Shows the list/tree of Ada units/files dependencies.

Mcd (3)

Reverse polish computer. At command line level but very powerful.


Many simple programs here. The most interesting are:

  • Alook (1) properly formats the words of a (valid) Ada2012 source file.

  • Astat (1) counts the number of instruction of (valid) Ada source files.

  • Azf (1) (un)compress a flow of bytes with Lzf.

  • Day_of_week (1) tells everything on today (or on another day).

  • G (1) is a game where to find the remaining of division by 3.

  • Lenv (1) lists environment variables whose name match a criteria.

  • Prime (1) searches prime numbers.

  • Renamer (1) is a Afpx based HMI to rename files.

  • Status (1) evaluates if a target file needs to be rebuilt.

  • Tcping (1) pings in tcp a host:port.

  • Tcp_spy (1) accepts a TCP connection and dumps data received on it.

  • Trail_spaces (1) removes tabs and trailing spaces and dos2unix a file.

  • Udp_Spy (2) displays udp/ipm packets received on a port.

  • Wake (1) sends a "Wake On LAN" packet on the local network or to a host:port.

Mmind (2)

Mastermind game on Con_Io.

Navig (2)

Navigation computation (wind, speed, heading, route, drift…).

Nimmari (2)

Nim and Marienbad game on Afpx.

Pexec (1)

Recursive execution on directories of commands.

Pipe (1)

Uses Fifo to relay stdin to another host where another pipe can put it on stdout. Deprecated, use tcpipe and t_async.

Renardeau (2)

Computes a target number by combining base numbers.

Sensor (1)

Scans several log files and raises alerts on some events (matching filters).

Simusi (2)

Machining simulation. (Tough algo).

Sokoban (2)

The famous Sokoban game (push the boxes).


Several simple programs using tasks.

Tcpchat (3)

Accepts connection of a TCP port, expects sentences and executes specified actions depending on what it receives.

Tcpipe (2)

As a bridge, multiplexes and relays TCP connections.


Several small test programs of the Repository packages.

  • Dtd_Checker (1) checks a DTD file (of a xml).

  • Dtd_Generator (2) generates a DTD from one or several XML files

  • Xml_Checker (3) checks and formats a XML file.

Xwords (2)

A graphical lexicography of common words and nouns (french DB), search with wildcards for crosswords, search of anagrams.

6. Cots directories

This directory mainly contains a copy of pragmarc and mine_detector from (under GPL).

Mine detector uses Gtk-Ada GPL_2016 (GTK3).

7. Testing

The directory tests contains many tests of the packages of the repository. It contains a Test scripts that runs automatic tests and stops on error if a test fails. With option -ix the Test script launches the tests of the packages that are based on X11 (X_Mng, Con_Io, Afpx, Curve…) for interactive testing.

Many projects in subdirectories of usr also implement automatic tests that are launched by a local Test script and fail on error.

Finally a Test script in usr lauches all the tests, which takes around 5 minutes.